High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition that usually doesn't cause any symptoms. Having your blood pressure checked is the only way to know if it is high.
Even though it doesn't usually cause symptoms, untreated high blood pressure can result in serious illnesses, such as coronary artery disease, heart attack, stroke and kidney failure.
Diet and lifestyle changes may be enough to control mildly elevated blood pressure. Your doctor may prescribe blood pressure medication and lifestyle changes if your blood pressure is moderately to severely high.
The American Heart Association says the following lifestyle choices can help reduce your blood pressure.
Inhaling cigarette smoke stimulates your heart, making it beat faster. It also narrows your blood vessels, causing your blood pressure to rise temporarily. Smoking is also a major risk factor for heart disease, leading to hardening of the arteries and heart attacks.
Maintain a healthy weight
Studies have found people who lose weight also lower their blood pressure. To lose weight safely, eat fewer foods high in fat and calories and increase your physical activity.
Regular aerobic exercise tones your heart, blood vessels and muscles and keeps your blood pressure low. Talk with your health care provider before beginning to exercise if you have high blood pressure or other health problems.
Learn to cope with stress
Stress may temporarily raise blood pressure, but it is not a cause of chronic high blood pressure. Meditate, listen to stress-management tapes or do relaxation exercises daily.
If you drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. Heavy, regular consumption of alcohol can increase blood pressure dramatically. Experts recommend no more than two drinks a day for a man and one drink a day for a woman.
Eat healthy and limit your salt intake
The DASH diet, or Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension, is an effective eating plan that has been shown to lower blood pressure. It doesn't require special foods; instead, it recommends a certain number of servings from a variety of food groups--vegetables, fruits, fat-free or low-fat milk, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts. It also calls for limiting sugar, fats, and red meat, and for reducing salt (sodium) intake. Following the DASH diet and keeping salt intake to 1,500 mg per day has shown the biggest benefit for blood pressure reduction in people with high blood pressure. Ask your health car provider how much sodium you should have each day.
Take your medicine
Follow these guidelines if your doctor prescribes blood pressure medication:
Take all your medication as prescribed.
Take your pills at the same time each day.
Never skip your pills because you have side effects or don't believe your blood pressure is high. Call your doctor to discuss your concerns.
Refill your prescriptions before they run out.
Don't stop taking your medication because your blood pressure tests normal. It's normal because you're taking the medication.